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Discussion: Messiah

This article is about religious concept of Messiah. For the musical work by Handel, see Messiah (Handel). For the BBC television drama series, see Messiah (television).
In Judaism, the Messiah (???? "Anointed one", Standard Hebrew Ma?ía?, Tiberian Hebrew M??îª?) is a human descendant of King David, who will rebuild the nation of Israel and restore the Davidic Kingdom; thus bringing world peace. Christians consider Jesus Christ to be that messiah, as well as the son of God and a member of the Trinity which they believe is God. The word Christ (Greek ???????, Khristos, "the anointed one") is a literal translation of "mashiach". In Islam, Jesus is also considered the Masiha, or Messiah, and his return to the Earth is expected, while another messianic figure, the Mahdi is also expected to return.
The Septuagint, an ancient Jewish translation of the Old Testament into Greek, translates all thirty-nine instances of the word as Khristos. The New Testament records the Greek form ???????, Messias, only twice, in John 1:41 and 4:25.

1 In the Hebrew Bible
2 In the New Testament
3 In Islam
4 Other historically significant Jewish Messiah claimants
4.1 Josephus's report of civil unrest in the first century4.2 Menahem ben Judah4.3 Bar Kokhba4.4 Moses of Crete4.5 In 7th century Persia4.6 Serene4.7 Messiahs during the crusades4.8 David Alroy4.9 In Yemen4.10 Abraham Abulafia4.11 Nissim ben Abraham4.12 Moses Botarel of Cisneros4.13 Asher Lemmlein4.14 Reuveni and Solomon Molko4.15 Isaac Luria4.16 Sabbatai Zevi4.17 Sabbethaian pseudo-messiahs4.18 Mordecai Mokia4.19 Jacob Frank4.20 Menachem Mendel Schneerson
5 Other Messiahs
6 The Messiah in science fiction and fantasy
7 See also
8 External links

In the Hebrew Bible
Main articles: Comparing and contrasting Judaism and Christianity and Jewish Messiah
The messiah-concept plays a prominent role in many books in the [[TanakhHebrew Bible]. In the Hebrew Bible, Israelite priests, prophets, and kings were anointed with oil, and so consecrated to their respective offices. The moshiach is anointed "above all his fellows" (Psalms 45:7), and therefore embraces himself in all the three offices.
The Hebrew Bible contains a small number of prophecies concerning a future descendant of King David, who will be anointed as the Jewish people's new leader (moshiach). This leader will rebuild the nation of Israel and restore the Davidic Kingdom.
The Jewish concept of moshiach (the messiah) has little, if anything, in common with the Christian concept of Jesus Christ as messiah. This subject is covered in more detail in the entry on Jewish eschatology.

In the New Testament
main article: Christian views of Jesus
Christianity as we have come to know it emerged from Judaism in the first century of the Common Era. The first Christians were Jews, though early in the Christian period doctrinal differences had already begun to develop between the Jerusalem Church and Paul and his mostly gentile followers (cf. New Testament books of Acts, Romans and Galatians). Within the Jewish tradition was a belief that a messiah ? a descendant of King David?would restore the monarchy and Jewish independence. According to mainstream Jewish beliefs, the failure of Jesus to restore the Kingdom, and his crucifixion by Romans, negated claims that he was the messiah (since most Jews do not accept that Jesus was the messiah, they reject the use of the full (Christian) name. See the Jewish conception of the messiah for a more detailed discussion of the Jewish understanding of the messiah). Nevertheless, many of Jesus' followers?perhaps inspired by encounters with Jesus after his crucifixion and entombment, but also drawing on alternative interpretations of Biblical passages?redefined the concept of messiah to encompass the resurrection and the promise of a second coming. In addition to this alternative understanding of the messiah, early Christians brought from Judaism its scriptures, fundamental doctrines such as monotheism, and other beliefs and practices. See Comparing and contrasting Judaism and Christianity.
Christian understanding of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament evaluates prophetic references to the Messiah in the context of New Testament witnesses; some passages are understood to deal with a contemporary fulfillment and a future fulfillment in Jesus. This is understood by Christians to be consistent with prophetic interpretation under the ancient Jewish tradition as well. In a unique example, the first Northern Kingdom ruler, Jeroboam received a prophecy of the future destruction of his idols by King Josiah (yet unborn) of Judah. This far future prophecy was confirmed by a contemporary prophecy that the ashes of the altar would spill out. This occurred shortly thereafter and was taken as confirmation of the far future prophecy.
In this view, the prophecies about Jesus became more definite and fuller as the ages rolled on. Different periods of prophetic revelation have been pointed out: (1) the patriarchal; (2) the Mosaic; (3) the period of David; (4) the period of prophetism, i.e., of those prophets whose work form a part of the Old Testament canon. Other periods have been defined as corresponding to the different dispensations (also seen as defined by covenants) of God's dealing with man. These would principally involved the pre-Mosaic period, the Mosaic period and finally the Christian period. This is not a full listing of the different periods of revelation, but a limited list helpful in the context. For a full listing see Dispensationalism.

In Islam
Main articles: Isa, Mahdi, Muhammad al-Mahdi
In al-Qur'an, the scripture of Islam, Isa (Jesus) is described as a Prophet of Allah (God) as well as "messiah". He is regarded, like all other Prophets in Islam, as a human being, and not God incarnate nor the son of God. The belief is that he was raised to heaven (and not crucified, as in Christian belief) and will return at the end of days to live out the rest of his natural life. The role of the messiah in Islam differs from the Judeo-Christian tradition of the Messiah. The main task of the messiah in Islam is to proclaim the coming of Ahmed. The messiah does not bring out the end of days. That role is assigned to another, the al-Mahdi.
The Mahdi (al-Mahdi, Imam Mehdi, etc.), is a different person from Jesus/Isa and is another "messianic figure" in Islam. The Mahdi will usher in a new age of peace. Shia and Sunni opinions on al-Mahdi differ somewhat, but both sects agree that Isa (Jesus), the son of Mary, is the Messiah. Ithna Ashari Shias identify him with Muhammad al-Mahdi, the 12th Imam.
The Ahmadiyya sect believe that the Messiah and Mahdi has come in the form of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, India (1835-1908)

Other historically significant Jewish Messiah claimants

Josephus's report of civil unrest in the first century
It had been thought that Josephus asserts that the Jesus of the Christians was indeed the true messiah. No original version of Josephus' writing exists, however, comparisons of various translations have led textual analysts to conclude that this and other statements were later interpolations inserted into the text centuries after the fact and were not written by Josephus himself.
However, also from Josephus it appears that in the first century before the destruction of the Temple a number of Jews incited or sought to incite rebellion. Josephus speaks of them thus: "Another body of wicked men also sprung up, cleaner in their hands, but more wicked in their intentions, who destroyed the peace of the city no less than did these murderers [the Sicarii]. For they were deceivers and deluders of the people, and, under pretense of divine illumination, were for innovations and changes, and prevailed on the multitude to act like madmen, and went before them in the wilderness, pretending that God would there show them signs of liberty" (Josephus, "B. J." ii. 13, §; 4; idem, "Ant." xx. 8, §; 6). Matt. xxiv. 24, warning against "false Christs and false prophets," gives testimony to the same effect.
About 44 CE a man named Theudas appeared, claiming to be a prophet. He urged the people to follow him with their belongings to the Jordan, which he would divide for them. According to Acts v. 36 (which seems to refer to a different date), he secured about 400 followers. Cuspius Fadus sent a troop of horsemen after him and his band, slew many of them, and took captive others, together with their leader, beheading the latter ("Ant." xx. 5, § 1).
An "Egyptian" is said to have gathered together 30,000 adherents, whom he summoned to the Mount of Olives, opposite Jerusalem, promising that at his command the walls of Jerusalem would fall down, and that he and his followers would enter and possess themselves of the city. But Felix, the procurator (c. 55-60), met the throng with his soldiery. The prophet escaped, but those with him were killed or captured, and the multitude dispersed.
Another messiah, Josephus reports, promised the people "deliverance and freedom from their miseries" if they would follow him to the wilderness. Both leader and followers were killed by the troops of Festus, the procurator. Even when Jerusalem was already being destroyed by the Romans, a prophet, according to Josephus suborned by the defenders to keep the people from deserting, announced that God commanded them to come to the Temple, there to receive miraculous signs of their deliverance. Those who came met death in the flames.

Menahem ben Judah
Menahem ben Judah, the son of Judas the Galilean and grandson of Hezekiah, the leader of the Zealots, who had troubled Herod, was a warrior. When the war broke out he attacked Masada with his band, armed his followers with the weapons stored there, and proceeded to Jerusalem where he captured the fortress Antonia, overpowering the troops of Agrippa II. Emboldened by his success, he behaved as a king, and claimed the leadership of all the troops. Thereby he aroused the enmity of Eleazar, another Zealot leader, and met death as a result of a conspiracy against him. He is probably identical with the Menahem ben Hezekiah mentioned in the Talmud (tractate Sanhedrin 98b) and called "the comforter that should relieve".

Bar Kokhba
With the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem the appearance of messiahs ceased for a time. Sixty years later a politico-Messianic movement of large proportions took place with Shimeon Bar Kokhba (also: Bar Kosiba) at its head. This leader of the revolt against Rome was hailed as Messiah-king by Rabbi Akiva, who referred to him, Numbers xxiv. 17: "There shall come forth a star out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise out of Israel, and shall smite through the corners of Moab,", and Hag. ii. 21, 22; "I will shake the heavens and the earth and I will overthrow the thrones of kingdoms. . . ." (Talmud tracate Sanhedrin 97b). Although some doubted his messiahship, he seems to have carried the nation with him for his undertaking. After stirring up a war (133-135) that taxed the power of Rome, he at last met his death on the walls of Bethar. His Messianic movement ended in defeat and misery for the survivors.

Moses of Crete
The unsuccessful issue of the Bar Kokba war put an end for centuries to Messianic movements, but Messianic hopes were nonetheless cherished. In accordance with a computation found in the Talmud, the Messiah was expected in 440 (Sanh. 97b) or 471 ('Ab. Zarah 9b). This expectation in connection with the disturbances in the Roman empire attendant upon invasions may have raised up the Messiah who appeared about this time in Crete, and who won over the Jewish population to his movement. He called himself Moses, and promised to lead the people, like the ancient Moses, dryshod through the sea back to Palestine. His followers, convinced by him, left their possessions and waited for the promised day, when at his command many cast themselves into the sea, some finding death, others being rescued. The pseudo-Messiah himself disappeared (Socrates, "Historia Ecclesiastica," vii. 38; Grätz, "Gesch." 3d ed., iv. 354-355).

In 7th century Persia
The pseudo-Messiahs that followed played their roles in the Orient, and were at the same time religious reformers whose work influenced Karaism. At the end of the seventh century appeared in Persia Is?a? ben Ya'?ub Obadiah Abu 'Isa al-Isfahani of Ispahan (for other forms of his name and for his sect see "J. Q. R." xvi. 768, 770, 771; Grätz, l.c. v., notes 15 and 17). He lived in the reign of the Umayyad Caliph 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (684-705). He claimed to be the last of the five forerunners of the Messiah and to have been appointed by God to free Israel. According to some he was himself the Messiah. Having gathered together a large number of followers, he rebelled against the caliph, but was defeated and slain at Rai. His followers claimed that he was inspired and urged as proof the fact that he wrote books, although he was ignorant of reading and writing. He founded the first sect that arose in Judaism after the destruction of the Temple.
His disciple Yudghan, called "Al-Ra'i" (= "the shepherd of the flock of his people"), who lived in the first half of the eighth century, declared himself to be a prophet, and was by his disciples regarded as a Messiah. He came from Hamadan, and taught doctrines which he claimed to have received through prophecy. According to Shahristani, he opposed the belief in anthropomorphism, taught the doctrine of free will, and held that the Torah had an allegorical meaning in addition to its literal one. He admonished his followers to lead an ascetic life, to abstain from meat and wine, and to pray and fast often, following in this his master Abu 'Isa. He held that the observance of the Sabbath and festivals was merely a matter of memorial. After his death his followers formed a sect, the Yudghanites, who believed that their Messiah had not died, but would return.

Between 720 and 723 a Syrian, Serene (his name is given variously in the sources as Sherini, Sheria, Serenus, Zonoria, Saüra) appeared as the messiah. The immediate occasion for his appearance may have been the restriction of the liberties of the Jews by the caliph Omar II (717-720) and his proselytizing efforts. On the political side, this Messiah promised the expulsion of the Muslims and the restoration of the Jews to the Holy Land. He had followers even in Spain, where the Jews were suffering under the oppressive taxation of their new Arab rulers, and many left their homes for the new Messiah. Like Abu 'Isa and Yudghan, Serene also was a religious reformer. He was hostile to rabbinic Judaism. His followers disregarded the dietary laws, the rabbinically instituted prayers, and the prohibition against the "wine of libation"; they worked on the second day of the festivals; they did not write marriage and divorce documents according to Talmudic prescriptions, and did not accept the Talmudic prohibition against the marriage of near relatives (see Grätz, l.c. note 14). Serene was arrested. Brought before Caliph Yazid II, he declared that he had acted only in jest, whereupon he was handed over to the Jews for punishment. His followers were received back into the fold upon giving up their heresy.

Messiahs during the crusades
Under the influence of the Crusades the number of Messiahs increased, and the twelfth century records many of them. One appeared in France (c. 1087) and was slain by the French; another appeared in the province of Cordova (c. 1117), and one in Fez (c. 1127). Of these three nothing is known beyond the mention of them in Maimonides' "Iggeret Teman" (letter to the Yemenite Jews)

David Alroy
The next important Messianic movement appears again in Persia. David Alroy or Alrui, who was born in Kurdistan, about 1160 declared himself a Messiah. Taking advantage of his personal popularity, the disturbed and weakened condition of the caliphate, and the discontent of the Jews, who were burdened with a heavy poll tax, he set out upon his political schemes, asserting that he had been sent by God to free the Jews from the Moslem yoke and to lead them back to Jerusalem. For this purpose he summoned the warlike Jews of the neighboring district of Adherbaijan and also his coreligionists of Mosul and Baghdad to come armed to his aid and to assist in the capture of Amadia. From this point his career is enveloped in legend. His movement failed, and he is said to have been assassinated, while asleep, by his own father-in-law. A heavy fine was exacted from the Jews for this uprising. After his death Alroy had many followers in Khof, Salmas, Tauris, and Maragha, and these formed a sect called the Menahemists, from the Messianic name "Menahem," assumed by their founder.

In Yemen
Soon after Alroy an alleged forerunner of the Messiah appeared in Yemen (in 1172) just when the Muslims were making determined efforts to convert the Jews living there. He declared the misfortunes of the time to be prognostications of the coming Messianic kingdom, and called upon the Jews to divide their property with the poor. This pseudo-Messiah was the subject of Maimonides' "Iggeret Teman." He continued his activity for a year, when he was arrested by the Muslim authorities and beheaded at his own suggestion, it is said, in order that he might prove the truth of his mission by returning to life.

Abraham Abulafia
With Abraham ben Samuel Abulafia (b. 1240; d. after 1291), the cabalist, begin the pseudo-Messiahs whose activity is deeply influenced by their cabalistic speculations. As a result of his mystic studies, Abulafia came to believe first that he was a prophet; and in a prophetic book which he published in Urbino (1279) he declared that God had spoken to him. It is thought, though not proven, that in Messina, on the island of Sicily, where he was well received and won disciples, he declared himself to be the Messiah and announced 1290 as the year for the Messianic era to begin. Solomon ben Adret, who was appealed to with regard to Abulafia's claims, condemned him, and some congregations declared against him. Persecuted in Sicily, he went to the island of Comino, near Malta (c. 1288), still asserting in his writings his mission. His end is unknown. Two of his disciples, Joseph Gikatilla and Samuel, both from Medinaceli, later claimed to be prophets and miracle-workers. The latter foretold in mystic language at Ayllon in Segovia the advent of the Messiah.

Nissim ben Abraham
Another pretended prophet was Nissim ben Abraham, active in Avila. His followers told of him that, although ignorant, he had been suddenly endowed, by an angel, with the power to write a mystic work, "The Wonder of Wisdom," with a commentary thereon. Again an appeal was made to Solomon ben Adret, who doubted Nissim's prophetic pretension and urged careful investigation. The prophet continued his activity, nevertheless, and even fixed the last day of the fourth month, Tammuz, 1295, as the date for the Messiah's coming. The credulous prepared for the event by fasting and almsgiving, and came together on the appointed day. But instead of finding the Messiah, some saw on their garments little crosses, perhaps pinned on by unbelievers to ridicule the movement. In their disappointment some of Nissim's followers are said to have gone over to Christianity. What became of the prophet is unknown.

Moses Botarel of Cisneros
After the lapse of a century another false Messiah came forward with Messianic pretensions. According to Grätz (l.c. viii. 404), this pretended Messiah is to be identified with Moses Botarel of Cisneros. One of his adherents and partizans was Hasdai Crescas. Their relation is referred to by Geronimo da Santa Fé in his speech at the disputation in Tortosa 1413.

Asher Lemmlein
In 1502, Asher Lemmlein (Lämmlein), a German proclaiming himself a forerunner of the Messiah, appeared in Istria, near Venice, and announced that if the Jews would be penitent and practice charity the Messiah would come within half a year, and a pillar of cloud and of smoke would precede the Jews on their return to Jerusalem. He found believers in Italy and Germany, even among the Christians. In obedience to his preaching, people fasted and prayed and gave alms to prepare for the coming of the Messiah, so that the year came to be known as the "year of penitence." But the "Messiah" either died or disappeared (see Lemmlein Asher).

Reuveni and Solomon Molko
Among the pseudo-Messiahs are to be included David Reuveni and Solomon Molko. The former pretended to be the ambassador and brother of the King of Khaibar, a town and former district of Arabia, in which the descendants of the "lost tribes" of Rueben and Gad were supposed to dwell. He said he was sent to the pope and the powers of Europe to secure cannon and firearms for war against the Muslims, who prevented the union of the Jews living on the two sides of the Red Sea. He denied expressly that he was a Messiah or a prophet (comp. Fuenn, "Keneset Yisrael," p. 256), claiming that he was merely a warrior. The credence which he found at the papal court in 1524, the reception accorded to him in 1525 at the Portuguese court (whither he came at the invitation of John III, and where he at first received the promise of help), the temporary cessation of persecution of the Maranos--all gave the Portuguese and Spanish Maranos reason to believe that Reuveni was a forerunner of the Messiah. Selaya, inquisitor of Badajoz, complained to the King of Portugal that a Jew who had come from the Orient (referring to Reuveni) had filled the Spanish Maranos with the hope that the Messiah would come and lead Israel from all lands back to Palestine, and that he had even emboldened them to overt acts (comp. Grätz, l.c. ix. 532). A spirit of expectancy was aroused by Reuveni's stay in Portugal. In Herrera del Duque, close to Puebla de Alcocer (Badajoz, Estremadura), a girl of fifteen described ecstatic visions in which she talked to the Messiah, who took her to heaven where she saw all those who were burned seated in thrones of gold, and assured her of his near coming. She (only known for us as the Maiden of Herrera) was enthusiastically proclaimed a prophetess, and such was the commotion caused by her visions that the Toledo Inquisition had her promptly arrested and burned together with many of her followers.

Isaac Luria
Isaac Luria (Isaac ben Solomon Ashkenazi Luria) was a Jewish advocate of Kabbalah (esoteric mysticism). At a later point, his disciple and successor, Chaim Vital Calabrese, was thought of as the messiah by some Palestinian Jews. Both claimed to be Ephraitic Messiahs, forerunners of the Davidic Messiah.
Isaac Luria (b. 1534 in Jerusalem; d. 1572 in Safed, Israel) taught in his mystic system the transmigration and superfetation of souls, and believed himself to possess the soul of the messiah of the house of Joseph, and to have it as his mission to hasten the coming of the messiah of the house of David through the mystic improvement of souls. Having developed his Kabbalistic system in Egypt without finding many followers, he went to Safed, Israel, about 1569. There he met Chaim Vital Calabrese, to whom he revealed his secrets and through whom he secured many disciples. To these he taught secretly his messiahship. He believed that the messianic era would commence in the beginning of the second half of the second day (of the year 1000) after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, that is, in 1568.
On Luria's death, Chaim Vital Calabrese (b. 1543; d. 1620 at Damascus) claimed to be the Ephraitic Messiah and preached the speedy advent of the Messianic era. In 1574 Abraham Shalom, a pretender to the Davidic Messiahship, it seems, sent to Vital, saying that he (Shalom) was the Davidic Messiah, whereas Vital was the Messiah of the house of Joseph. He urged Vital to go to Jerusalem and stay there for at least two years, whereupon the divine spirit would come upon him. Shalom bade Vital, furthermore, not to fear death, the fate of the Ephraitic Messiah, as he would seek to save him from this doom.

Sabbatai Zevi
The most important messianic movement, and one whose influence was wide-spread throughout Jewry, lasting in some quarters over a century, was that of Sabbatai (or Shabbethai) Zevi (b. at Smyrna 1626; d. at Dulcigno 1676). See the article on Sabbatai Zevi for more details.

Sabbethaian pseudo-messiahs
After his death Sabbatai was followed by a line of putative messiahs. Jacob Querido, son of Joseph Filosof, and brother of the fourth wife of Sabbatai, became the head of the Shabbethaians in Salonica, being regarded by them as the incarnation of Shabbethai. He pretended to be Shabbethai's son and adopted the name Jacob Tzvi. With 400 followers he went over to Islam about 1687, forming a sect called the Dönmeh. He himself even made a pilgrimage to Mecca (c. 1690). After his death his son Berechiah or Berokia succeeded him (c. 1695-1740).
A number of Shabbethai's followers declared themselves Messiahs. Miguel (Abraham) Cardoso (1630-1706), born of Marano parents, may have been initiated into the Shabbethaian movement by Moses Pinheiro in Leghorn. He became a prophet of the Messiah, and when the latter embraced Islam he justified this treason, saying that it was necessary for the Messiah to be reckoned among the sinners in order to atone for Israel's idolatry. He applied Isa. liii. to Shabbethai, and sent out epistles to prove that Shabbethai was the true Messiah, and he even suffered persecution for advocating his cause. Later he considered himself as the Ephraitic Messiah, asserting that he had marks on his body which were proof of this. He preached and wrote of the speedy coming of the Messiah, fixing different dates until his death (see Cardoso, Miguel).

Mordecai Mokia
Another follower of Shabbethai who remained faithful to him, Mordecai Mokia? ("the Rebuker") of Eisenstadt, also pretended to be a Messiah. His period of activity was from 1678 to 1682 or 1683. He preached at first that Shabbethai was the true Messiah, that his conversion was for mystic reasons necessary, that he did not die but would reveal himself within three years after his supposed death, and pointed to the persecution of the Jews in Oran (by Spain), in Austria, and in France, and to the pestilence in Germany as prognostications of his coming. He found a following among Hungarian, Moravian, and Bohemian Jews. Going a step further, he declared that he was the Davidic Messiah. Shabbethai, according to him, was only the Ephraitic Messiah and was furthermore rich, and therefore could not accomplish the redemption of Israel. He (Mordecai), being poor, was the real Messiah and at the same time the incarnation of the soul of the Ephraitic Messiah. Italian Jews heard of him and invited him to Italy. He went there about 1680, and received a warm welcome in Reggio and Modena. He spoke of Messianic preparations which he had to make in Rome, and hinted at having perhaps to adopt Christianity outwardly. Denounced to the Inquisition, or advised to leave Italy, he returned to Bohemia, and then went to Poland, where he is said to have become insane. From his time a sect began to form there, which still existed at the beginning of the Mendelssohnian era.
Another Shabbethaians messaish claimant was Löbele Prossnitz. He taught that God had given dominion of the world to the "pious one," i.e., the one who had entered into the depths of Kabbalah. Such a representative of God had been Shabbethai, whose soul had passed into other "pious" men, into Jonathan Eybeschütz and into himself. Another, Isaiah Hasid (a brother-in-law of the Shabbethaian Judah Hasid), who lived in Mannheim, secretly claimed to be the resurrected Messiah, although publicly he had abjured Shabbethaian beliefs.

Jacob Frank
Jacob Frank (b. 1726 in Podolia; d. 1791), founder of the Frankists, also claimed to be the messiah. In his youth he had been brought into relation with the Dönmeh. He taught that he was a reincarnation of King David. Having secured a following among some Turkish and Wallachian Jews, he came in 1755 to Podolia, where the Shabbethaians were in need of a leader, and revealed himself to them as the reincarnation of the soul of Berechiah.
He laid stress on the idea of the "holy king" who was at the same time Messiah, and he accordingly called himself "santo señor" (="holy lord"). His followers claimed he performed miracles; and they even prayed to him. His purpose, as well as that of his sect, was to uproot rabbinic Judaism. He was forced to leave Podolia; and his followers were persecuted. Returning in 1759, he advised his followers to embrace Christianity, and about 1,000 were converted and became priviliged Polish gentry of Jewish origins. He himself was converted in Warsaw November 1759. Later his insincerity was exposed, and he was imprisoned as a heretic, remaining, however, even in prison the head of this sect. See the article on Jacob Frank for more details.

Menachem Mendel Schneerson
Among the Chabad Lubavitch sect of Hasidic Judaism there was a growing messianic fervor in the late 1980s and early 1990s due to the belief that their leader, Menachem Mendel Schneerson was about to reveal himself to be the messiah. Schneerson's passing in 1994 abated this sentiment somewhat though most followers of Schneerson still believe he is the messiah and will return when the time is right. Or more accurately, they do not believe that he has even 'passed on' at all.

Other Messiahs
In Stregheria, Jesus Christ is believed to have been a sort of "evil messiah" or false messiah, while Aradia de Toscano is seen as the true savior who came to free the poor and the oppressed from the bondages of Christianity.
A few million people consider Rev. Moon to be the Second Coming of Jesus Christ.
The Shakers believed that Jesus was the male Messiah and Mother Ann Lee, the female Messiah.
For the Rastafarians, Haile Selassie of Ethiopia was the messiah.
David Koresh was considered the messiah by his followers.

The Messiah in science fiction and fantasy
The idea of a messiah figure has long been an element in the genres of science fiction and fantasy. See the article Messiahs in Fiction and Fantasy.

See also
List of messiah claimants
Messiahs in fiction and fantasy
The musical work Messiah, a 1742 oratorio by Handel
Jewish view of Jesus

External links
Rabbi Chaim Vital Calabrese (
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#1: Yeshua Connection - Messianic site with articles about Yeshua the Jewish Messiah plus fun stuff, a free page, humor, travel, recipes, Jewish holidays, and more serious topics like anti-Semitism and the Holocaust.
#2: Messiah Lutheran Church, Aspen, Colorado (LCMS) - Includes Worship schedule, pastoral message, location with directions, and contacts.
#3: Helen Mirren Appreciation Society - Savage Messiah - Film sysnopsis, and comments on the actors, particularly that of Helen Mirren.
#4: MessiahNet - Network Community for Messianic, Jewish, and Christian Believers in Messiah Yeshua. Members only, discussion groups, bulletin boards, chat rooms, teachings, and daily devotional.
#5: Messiah Lutheran Church, Holt, Michigan (LCMS) - Includes Worship schedule, activities and events, location, contacts and pastoral message.
#6: Rotten Tomatoes: Savage Messiah - Synopsis, photos, news, articles, and forum.
#7: Handel's Messiah - Complete libretto, with sources.
#8: GameSpot - Contains reviews (6/10), previews, news, downlaods, hints, and updates.
#9: Messiah Lutheran Church, Denver, Colorado (ELCA) - Includes Worship schedule, events, location, contacts and links.
#10: Judaic Messianism - An explanation of the true Jewish concept of the Messiah and the differences between Jewish and Christian beliefs about the nature of the Savior.
#11: Messiah College - Official site.
#12: Messiah Lutheran Church, Winnipeg, Manitoba (ELCIC) - Includes Worship schedule, events calendar, location, and contacts.
#13: The Jewish Messiah - Read the author's autobiography as well as articles such as Ticket to Heaven, Jesus and World Religions, Historical Proof, and Death to Live.
#14: Prophecies of Jesus Christ as Messiah - Evidence that Jesus Christ is the Messiah predicted by the Old Testament.
#15: Bare-Faced Messiah - The definitive (unauthorised) biography of L. Ron Hubbard, by British journalist Russell Miller. Website includes complete text online, several published reviews of the book, and documents and interviews used in researching the book.
#16: Yahweh's Assembly In Messiah - Sacred names of the Father Yahweh and the Son Yahshua. Information on cleanness in body and food, keeping Sabbath and Holy days, salvation, family living, prophecy, fellowship, music, sabbath services online.
#17: Hope of Israel Ministries Church of God - Dedicated to keeping the Sabbath and the Holy Days while recognizing that there is only one true God (Yehovah) and His servant Yeshua the Messiah.
#18: Christian Churches of God World Conference - Official site. Teaches the original faith taught by the Messiah and the Apostles.
#19: Messiah College Men's Tennis - Falcons. Scores, game schedule, pictures, coaching staff and a roster.
#20: Fat Messiah Games - Maker of fantasy science fiction board games, since 1992.
#21: The Messiah's and Fargo's Love Connection - A humourous look at Redneck love and the online dating community.
#22: Isa Islam: The Muslim's Messiah - Isa Islam balances belief in Isa (Jesus) with the religion of Islam. Allah has provided every Muslim and Christian salvation from hell through the Messiah's blood sacrifice.
#23: The Messiah Project - Personal writings about living a peaceful and spirit filled life.
#24: Messiah Operation - Four-piece indie/melody rock band from Dublin, Ireland. Contains news, diary, mp3s, message board and pictures.
#25: Butterfly Messiah - Naples, Fl-based 3 piece synthpop/industrial dance/gothic band.
#26: Lunatic the Messiah - Profile and sound files of the Chicago MC.
#27: AMF International: We've Found the Messiah - The testimonies of Jews who found Jesus.
#28: Adam, the Fall, and the Messiah - Presenting the Mormon belief that mankind's ejection from the Garden of Eden was part of God's plan from the start.
#29: O'Hearn, Tim: Minutes With Messiah - Articles from monthly bulletin. Information about the Riverside church of Christ in Albuquerque, NM. Bible questions and answers.
#30: Messiah from Montreal - Documentary about the Jewish Montreal poet A.M. Klein. Includes sections on the film's themes, credits, music and ordering for the film. Requires Flash.
#31: Messiah's Kingdom - Dedicated to Historic Pre-Millennialism, Historica-Grammatical Method of Hermeneutics, and the Gospel. The site's authors are John Ludlum, Jr., Ph.D., who served over 40 years as a pastor with the Reformed Church in America, and Andrew Ludlum, M.Div., an ordained teaching elder with the Presbyterian Church in America.
#32: Messianic_Apologetic - Yahoo Newsgroup discussing, Is Yahshua (Jesus) the Messiah of the Tenakh (Old Testament)? Dialog on the traditional rabbinical viewpoints and prophetic fulfillment.
#33: Messiah Lutheran Church, Lincoln, Nebraska (LCMS) - Includes Worship times, calendar of activities and events, ministry and mission statements, service and fellowship opportunities for adults and youth, location with map reference, contacts, and links.
#34: IMDb: Savage Messiah (1972) - Plot summary, cast and crew information, awards, trivia, and user comments.
#35: Handel's Messiah Through the Centuries - Paper by Patrick Findlay: related musical and cultural changes.
#36: Speedy 3D - Rated 8.5/10 by Ryan Wissman. "Although the game was a little short, I thoroughly enjoyed playing through Messiah."
#37: Messiah Lutheran Church, Madison, Alabama (ELCA) - Includes Worship schedule, pastoral message, history, calendar, service and fellowship opportunities, faith statements, location with map, and contacts.
#38: Shabbetai Zvi - False Messiah - Article from the Jewish Virtual Library on the medieval leader who claimed to be the Jewish messiah. Includes images of Sabbatean artifacts.
#39: Messiah College Athletics - Official site of the Falcons with news items, scores, statistics, rosters and game schedules.
#40: Messiah Lutheran Church, Prince Albert, Saskatchewan (ELCIC) - Includes location map, contacts and links
#41: Word of Messiah Ministries - Find answers to questions about being Jewish and believing in Jesus, world peace, and the holocaust. Read news and mission reports.
#42: Bible Prophecy That Jesus Fulfilled - Lists specific Bible prophecy that Jesus fulfilled proving that He is truly the Messiah.
#43: L. Ron Hubbard--Messiah? Or Madman? - Text by Margery Wakefield that examines the potential validity of biographical sources other than the official version.
#44: First Fruits of Zion - Torah-based teachings encouraging the Body of Messiah to rediscover the wonderful gift of grace that Torah truly is in the fullness of Yeshua.
#45: God's Festivals? - Postponements of God's Holy Days were not taught by the Messiah or the Apostles.
#46: Messiah College Women's Tennis - Falcons. A recruiting questionnaire, news articles, game schedule and past results.
#47: Invitation Towards Allah - Ahmadiyyat (real Islam) is the only sure path to God. The Promised Messiah has come. Writings of Imam Mahdi in English, Urdu, and Arabic. Heavenly signs. Articles on Jesus, the 72 sects, the finality of Prophethood.
#48: Star Wars Promotes New Age False Messiah - Reseacher contends that certain movies promote a New Age, Ascended Master false theology.
#49: The Refiner's Fire - Messianic Jewish site whose goal is to promote Biblical truth by providing informative articles and testimony to Jews and Gentiles seeking the truth of the Messiah Yeshua.
#50: Messiah Lutheran Church, Missoula, Montana (LCMS) - Includes worship schedule, location, contacts, activities and Christian education program.
#51: George Frideric Handel - Messiah - Libretto; WAV files of several movements (at Classical Music Pages)
#52: The Adrenaline Vault - Review by Nick Stewart, score 3/5. "Without a doubt, Messiah is one of the most original titles that you're likely to see all year."
#53: Lutheran Church of the Messiah, Decatur, Georgia (ELCA) - Includes Worship schedule, pastoral message, history, calendar, service, study, and fellowship opportunities, faith statements, sermon archive, devotional material, newsletter, location with map, contacts, and links.
#54: Shabtai Zvi and the Messiah - Shabbati Zvi and the messianic movement, a historical story
#55: Messiah's Harvest Ministries - Learn about the aliyah and Hanukkah missions projects, read about Messianic Jewish history, and subscribe to a newsletter.
#56: A Ready Defense - Messianic Prophecies Fulfilled in Jesus - Jesus had various credentials to support His claims to being the Messiah, God's son. One credential often overlooked is the fulfillment of prophecy in His life.
#57: L. Ron Hubbard, Messiah or Madman? - Full text of 1987 biography by Bent Corydon, former member of the Church of Scientology and mission holder. 862K.
#58: Hatikva Ministries - Information regarding the Jewish Roots of the Christian Faith, Yeshua the Messiah and Prophecy in their Hebraic framework. Tours to Israel.
#59: King Messiah Project - Articles and sound files of talks countering Judaism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Preterism and Islam.
#60: - Read scriptural descriptions of the Messiah and the controversy in Judaism about Yeshuah.
#61: Messiah Lutheran Church, Charlotte, North Carolina (LCMS) - Includes Worship schedule, faith statements, pastoral message, sermon archive, forums, location, contacts and links.
#62: Inkpot Classical Music Reviews: Handel Messiah - Introduction; recommended recordings, some with very detailed reviews.
#63: Messiah Evangelical Lutheran Church Minneapolis, Minnesota (ELCA) - Includes Worship schedule, newsletter, activities, history, location and contacts.
#64: Shabatsai Tzvi: The Jewish Mystical Messiah - Powerpoint presentation by L. E. Levine.
#65: Chosen People Ministries - Jews and Gentiles who believe Jesus is the Messiah.
#66: Biblical Prophecy Resource Center - Prophecies Fulfilled by Jesus - Examines a large list of Old Testament verses which most agree are descriptions of the Messiah.
#67: Hebraic Roots of Christianity Global Network - Desires to see all believers in Yeshua as Messiah to understand the Hebraic/Jewish heritage.
#68: The Messiah - Story about two friends, a Muslim and a Christian, having a discussion about Christianity.
#69: The Messianic Prophecy Bible Project - Learn about the Messianic Prophecy Bible that unmasks scriptures in the Tanakh linking to the Messiah. Read testimonies and endorsements.
#70: Messiah Lutheran Church, Cincinnati, Ohio (LCMS) - Includes Worship schedule, pastoral message, history, service and fellowship opportunities, faith statements, location with map, contacts, and links.
#71: Karpeles Manuscript Library - Handel's Messiah in Beethoven's hand - [scans of two pages of a historically interesting manuscript]
#72: Messiah Lutheran Church, Montgomery, Alabama (ELCA) - Includes Worship schedule, pastoral message, weekly events calendar, location with map, and contacts.
#73: Shabbetai Tzvi The False Messiah - Critical biography and analysis.
#74: Jewish Truth Ministry, The - Messianic Internet based ministry dedicated to educating Jewish people about the truths of the Jewish Messiah.
#75: Messianic Prophecies Fulfilled by Jesus Christ - Messianic Prophecies fulfilled by Jesus Has Old Testament prophecies about the coming Messiah with full text and the New Testament fulfillment of the prophecies, also with full text.
#76: The Edifier - Hebraic Roots site takes a look at Hebrew thinking vs Greek thinking and how the Greek translations have colored the Christian faith against the Jewish Messiah.
#77: Chaim - Christians Announcing Israel's Messiah - An Evangelistic Organization to the Jewish people.
#78: The Difference Between a Church and a Messianic Synagogue - Article that appeared in MJAA's 'Spirit of Messiah' publication compares a Christian church with a Messianic Synagogue.
#79: Messiah Evangelical Lutheran Church, Long Island, New York (LCMS) - Includes Worship schedule, pastoral message, calendar, service and fellowship opportunities, faith statements, yout activities, newsletter, location with map, contacts, and links.
#80: Antipas Christadelphians: Handel's Messiah Midi Page - Complete libretto, commentary, nearly complete MIDI.
#81: Messiah Lutheran Church, Aurora, Nebraska (ELCA) - Contains Worship times, mission statement, location, and contacts.
#82: Shabbethai Zebi B. Mordecai - Article from the Jewish Encyclopedia on the pseudo-messiah and kabbalist who founded the Shabbethaian sect.
#83: To The Ends Of The Earth- - Messianic Christian ministry. Includes Seminars, Israel Tours, Newsletter, Books, Tapes, Articles on the Bible, Jesus the Messiah, and the Jewish roots of Christianity.
#84: Messianic Prophecies - Examines Old Testament texts written centuries before the coming of the Christ (Messiah) and their fulfillment by Jesus Christ.
#85: The Jew - Reminding the church of the Hebraic Roots of Christianity and that Jesus is a Jew. Clarifying the identity of Jesus as the Messiah of Israel.
#86: Messiah College - Track and Field - Falcons official site. News, schedule, roster, school records, and recruiting questionnaire.
#87: Beth Messiah Congregation - An independent Messianic congregation located in Livingston, New Jersey, made up of both Jews and Gentiles who love Yeshua. Web site includes a fact sheet, statement of faith, photos, and calendar of special events.
#88: Lutheran Church of Messiah, Grand Junction, Colorado (LCMS) - Includes Worship schedule, leadership profiles, calendar of activities and events, outreach, fellowship and service opportunities, contacts, location with map reference and links.
#89: Messiah by George Frideric Handel - Digital facsimile of complete score (1912 Schirmer ed.)
#90: Messiah Lutheran Church, North Mankato, Minnesota (ELCA) - Contact information, mission statement, worship times, map and directions, calendar, announcements, history, photos of new members. Too wide for most monitors.
#91: Moshiach Online - Information about the coming of the Jewish Messiah.
#92: CrossTalk - Dr. Randy Weiss ministers to people about the life of Messiah from a Jewish perspective. Listen to "CrossTalk" programs online.
#93: Prohecies Fulfilled in Jesus - There have been described in the Old Testament 300 prophecies of the first coming of the Messiah and 500 of the second coming, all of then made hundreds of years before the birth of Jesus and fulfilled to the letter in Jesus Christ, the Messiah.
#94: Of Whom Do the Prophets Speak - A look at Old Testament Scriptures about the Messiah.
#95: Messiah College Women's Lacrosse - Falcons. Game schedule and results, player roster and statistics, pictures and coaching staff.
#96: Beth Messiah Congregation - Cincinnati, Ohio. Includes music store and links.
#97: Messiah Lutheran Church, Indianapolis, Indiana (LCMS) - Includes Worship Schedule, faith statements, service and fellowship opportunities, guided photo tour, youth activity schedule, pastoral message, location with map, contacts, and links.
#98: The Messiah Project - MIDI encoding of the "Messiah".
#99: Judaic Messianism - Resources from a university course on the subject includes information on failed messiahs, the messianic idea, the Jewish concept of a messiah is and why Jesus does not fulfill Judaism's criteria for messianism.
#100: Bible Basics - Old Testament Prophecies of Jesus - Throughout the Psalms and prophets of the Old Testament there are countless prophecies about what Messiah would be like.
#101: Yadbyad Ministries - Hebraic Roots of Christianity Ministry, featuring a compilation of study material relating to the Early Church. Emphasis is placed on the Hebraic understanding and interpretation when applying Scripture.
#102: Messiah College Men's Lacrosse - Falcons. Game schedule and results, season preview, player statistics, pictures, coaching staff and related links.
#103: Congregation Beth Messiah - Houston, Texas. Home to peoples of all nations for the worship of the One and only G~d through a personal relationship with Messiah Yeshua.
#104: Messiah Lutheran Church, Lakeville, Minnesota (LCMS) - Includes Worship schedule, events, fellowship opportunities, location, and contacts.
#105: The Messiah's Millennium Message - Neil 'The Messiah' Brandt presents the Messiah's Millennium Message to bring God into everyone's hearts and Peace to Earth!
#106: Over 300 Prophecies Jesus Fulfilled - Jesus of Nazareth fulfilled over 300 prophecies about the Jewish Messiah.
#107: Messiah College Men's Basketball - Official site of the Falcons. Contains photos, video clips, game schedules, results, rosters, and statistics. [MAC Commonwealth]
#108: Congregation Beth Messiah - Southfield, Michigan. Messianic congregation shares that true Shalom can only come through the blood sacrifice of Yeshua (Jesus) and whoever believes in Him and repents from their sins shall have everlasting life.
#109: Messiah Lutheran Church, Mounds View, Minnesota (LCMS) - Includes Worship schedule, pastoral message, calendar, service, fellowship, and study opportunities, faith statements, sermon archive, newsletter, location with map, contacts and links.
#110: YAHUAHSHUA the Messiah - Commentary on the hebrew name of the Almighty and of His Beloved Son.
#111: Messiah's Fellowship - Las Vegas, Nevada. Messianic congregation and area bible study for both Jewish and non-Jewish believers in Jesus.
#112: The Lutheran Church of the Messiah, Vicksburg, Mississippi (LCMS) - Includes Worship schedule, activities, contacts, map location, fellowship opportunities and local links.
#113: Nathan Weinstock: Zionism - False Messiah - This on-line book continues the analytical tradition of Karl Marx' anti-nationalist and anti-colonialist view of The Jewish Question.
#114: Beth Shalom Messianic Jewish Congregation - Rancho Cucamonga, California. Congregation asserts Yashua as Mashiach (Jesus as Messiah).
#115: Messiah Lutheran Church, Keller, Texas (LCMS) - Includes Worship times, faith statements, study and fellowship opportunities, sermon archive, calendar, location with map, and contacts.
#116: Jozef Pilsudski: Messiah and Central European Federalist - A short biography by Patryk Dole: Life and political activities of one of the greatest figures in Central-European politics between the WWI and WWII. Includes historical maps, photographs and texts of speeches.
#117: Congregation Bet HaShem - Practices faith in and worship of Messiah Yeshua in traditional Hebraic form, with Davidic Worship, Torah cycle, Biblical feast days. Located in Bellingham, Washington.
#118: Messiah Lutheran Church, Vicksburg, Mississippi (LCMS) - Includes Worship schedule, pastoral message, events calendar, service and fellowship opportunities, faith statements, location with map, contacts, and links.
#119: Jesus the Messiah Came - Historical study of Jesus fulfilling prophecies in the Old Testament regarding Messiah.
#120: Messengers of the New Covenant Messianic Fellowship - Messianic congregation in Livingston, New Jersey, proclaiming Messiah Yeshua. Site contains teaching articles, info on meetings, holiday services, seminars and special events.
#121: Messiah Lutheran Church, Germantown, Maryland (LCMS) - Worship and Bible class schedule, weekly calendar, directions and map, pastor's biography and e-mail, educational material on Christianity and Lutheranism, sermons in RAM format, and contact information.
#122: Classical Music Archives - Handel's Messiah - MIDI files and live recordings of featured artists in MP3 and WMA formats - scroll down to Operas and Oratorios, and then to Messiah.
#123: Olive Tree Congregation - Messianic congregation in Des Plaines, Illinois, made up of Jewish and Gentile people committed to following Yeshua (Jesus), the Messiah foretold by the Hebrew prophets. Torah optional.
#124: Messiah Lutheran Church, Salem, Oregon (LCMS) - Includes worship times, location, sermon archive, Bible studies, newsletter, weekly bulletin, contact information, and links.
#125: Messiah College - Founded by the Brethren in Christ church and located in Grantham, Pennsylvania. Offers an overview with detailed information on courses, resources and admissions.
#126: Congregation Beth El of Manhattan - New York (Manhattan), New York. Conservative-style Jewish synagogue/congregation of Messianic (Two-Testament) Judaism, recognizing Yeshua (Jesus) of Nazareth as Messiah.
#127: Messiah Lutheran Church, Sartell, Minnesota (LCMS) - Includes Worship schedule, pastoral message, photo gallery, calendar, service, study and fellowship opportunities, faith statements, newsletter, location with map, contacts and links.
#128: Messiah Holiness Church of God in Christ - Youngstown, Ohio. Church address, times of services, announcements, and timely congregational information.
#129: Servants of Messiah Ministries - Nazarene Israel Congregation of Titusville, Florida. Includes articles.
#130: Messiah Lutheran Church, Longmont, Colorado (LCMS) - Contains Worship schedule, history, ministries, newsletter, location, and contacts.
#131: New Age Messiah identified: who is Lord Maitreya? - Speculates that Lord Maitreya is the next Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Movement.
#132: One in Messiah - Messianic Israel Congregation in Brentwood, Tennessee. Includes articles, and radio program.
#133: Messiah Lutheran Church, Kenosha, Wisconsin (LCMS) - Includes Worship Schedule, sermon archive, liturgy and liturgical resources, articles, location, and contacts.
#134: Savage Messiah: Vladek Sheybal - Interview and article by David Del Valle, from Psychotronic magazine.
#135: Messianic Israel West Texas - Messianich Israel Outreach ministry proclaiming Jesus as the Jewish Messiah. Congregation and Articles.
#136: Messiah no Miko's Earthian Hall - Introduction, character profiles, images, and links. Focuses mainly on the manga.
#137: Messianic Temple Beth El - Brooklyn, New York. Spirit filled Messianic Nazarene synagogue proclaims that Yahshua (Jesus) is the prophesied Messiah of Israel.
#138: Messiah College - Sociology (Grantham, PA)
#139: Congregation Beikvot HaMashiach (Followers of the Messiah): - Messianic, Torah observant, congregation in Burien (South Seattle), Washington. Includes articles.
#140: Messiah College - Department of Mathematical Sciences
#141: Adat Aytz Chayim - Messianic Jewish Ministry, in Evansville, IN. Believes that Yeshua is the Messiah and follows Jewish holidays and Shabbat.
#142: Messiah College - Official site with news, schedule, roster and statistics.
#143: Adat Yeshua Synagogue - Messianic Jewish Community in New Orleans, Louisiana, that worships the G-d of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and acknowledges that Yeshua (Jesus) is Messiah. Frames-dependent site. Torah Observant.
#144: Messiah College - Team roster and schedule, results, statistics and related links for the men's volleyball club at this Grantham, Pennsylvania college.
#145: Beth Shalom Messianic Fellowship - Messianic Jewish Fellowship in Sandpoint, Idaho. Believers in Yeshua as Messiah and Torah Observance.
#146: Project: messiah - Advanced character animation plugin for Lightwave 3D
#147: Seed of Abraham Messianic Congregation - Messianic Jewish congregation of Jews and Gentiles from many backgrounds worshiping the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob through Yeshua, Jesus the Messiah. St. Louis Park, Minnesota. Torah for blessing.
#148: The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Heresy Hunter - David Singer's review of David Berger's The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference.
#149: Messiahs Gifts - Messianic books, music, art and gifts.
#150: Germantown, Reformed Episcopal Church of the Messiah - An urban evangelical ministry. Information about ministries, parish mission, pastor information, news and related links.
#151: Word of Messiah Ministries - Bookstore - Acquire monthly message tapes by Sam Nadler, Messianic books, studies, and Messianic Music.
#152: Sing-Along-Messiah 2002 - Sound of Gospel samler kor til en fælles opsætning af Händels Messias. Om projektet og deltagelse.
#153: Messiah Biblical Institute & The Joseph Rabinowitz Graduate School - Gaithersburg, Maryland. Read about the degree programs and online courses of this Messianic training school.
#154: Messiah College Women's Basketball - Falcons - official web site with news, schedule, roster, statistics.
#155: Messianic Studies Institute - Adult education program by Beth Messiah Congregation of Gahanna, Ohio presents studies in understanding the Jewish context of scripture.
#156: Messiah Lutheran Youth in Camrose - Includes photos, news, calendars, activities, a forum, and various registration forms.
#157: Messiah's Harvest Ministries - Exodus 2 /Aliyah - Read about what this mission does and how you can sponsor stranded Jewish families in relocating from the former Soviet Union to Israel.
#158: Messiah Lutheran Church - ELCA congregation, with Sunday school and vacation Bible school.
#159: Spirit of Messiah - Publication of the International Alliance of Messianic Congregations & Synagogues presents Messianic Jewish magazine articles to read.
#160: Messiah Presentations - A non-profit Christian arts presentation company based in Brockville, Ontario. Produces full-length productions aimed at bringing people closer to God.
#161: Association of Independent Messianics - AIM is founded in beliefs of Messiah Yeshua, the Torah, and unity of Judah and Ephraim. Find gatherings, tours, products, and a directory of congregations.
#162: Messiah College - Gay at Messiah - A resource for gay and lesbian or questioning students, alumni, faculty and staff of Messiah College and those who love them. News, events, and resources of various kinds.
#163: Association of Messianic Congregations, The - Association shares its beliefs in being Messiah centered, joyfully Jewish, grace-embracing and in the literal nature of Biblical promises.
#164: Messiah Lutheran Church - ELCA congregation. Offers Sunday school program.
#165: Messianic Jewish Alliance of Australia - An Australia, Bible-based, organization, bringing together Jews and Gentiles who acknowledge that Yeshua (Jesus) is the promised Messiah of Israel.
#166: The Temple Messiah Heresy - A forum to explore Judeo-Christian issues of Zionism, especially whether forcing the biblical prophecies of Temple rebuilding and the coming of the Messiah is heresy.
#167: Netzarim - First-century Nazarene Jews of Israel reconstructed in Orthodox Judaism (leader is member on board Orthodox synagogue, Ra'anana, Israel), receptive to non-Jews. Tenakh, Talmud and Matthew only. Salvation by works. Yeshua was human Messiah.
#168: Messiah Lutheran Church - Worship schedule, invitation to guests, and pastor contact information.
#169: Netzarim Judaism - Messianic teaching ministry with articles and books on Torah and Kabbalah. Tenakh, Talmud and Matthew only. Salvation by works. Yeshua was human Messiah.
#170: Wovoka: The Paiute Messiah - Story of the Indian religious leader and the forcible suppression of his Ghost Dance.
#171: CrossTalk Television Ministries - Listen to broadcasts from an archive of audio and video programs by Randy Weiss Ph. D. who proclaims the Jewish Messiah. View a TV schedule.
#172: Messiah Evangelical Lutheran Church - ELCA Church, in Wauconda, Illinois. Worship schedule, groups and ministries, Bible study, and events listings are included.
#173: Messianic Minutes - Listen to archived shows for broadcasts that reaches Jewish people with the love of Messiah Yeshua. View a schedule and find radio stations that air the program.
#174: Messiah Lutheran - Includes information about the pastor, church committees, worship schedule, and calendar of events.
#175: Jews for Jesus - Australia - Learn about Jesus the Messiah and the Jews for Jesus organization that exists to make the messiah-ship of Jesus an unavoidable issue to Jewish people.
#176: Messiah Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod. History, location and map, information on worship and education.
#177: Jews for Jesus - For Seekers - Ministry provides articles, testimonies, and answers that Jesus is the Messiah. Find a message board and chat.
#178: Pyro Messiah - Fan site featuring a chat room, message board, image gallery and biography.
#179: Butterfly Messiah - Haunting gothic music, sound samples, photos, reviews, merchandise available for sale, and links to related sites.
#180: Gospel of the Messiah Widow - Bald Alice Theatre Company presents an innovative and compelling play by Stan Peal. February 9-24, 2001.
#181: Crimson Messiah - Hard Rock/Metal featuring x-Concrete Jungle vocalist Michael Lynx.
#182: Messiah College Women's Volleyball - Falcons. A recruiting questionnaire, pictures, roster, game schedule, scores and coaching staff.
#183: Waiting for the Messiah of Eastern Parkway - Article on the impact of Chabad Messianisicm.
#184: Ken Russell: Savage Messiah - Reviews, summaries, and pictures from his movie, television, and written works. Includes analysis of his films by theme with special attention paid to the influence of Roman Catholicism.
#185: Jewish-Christian Talk - Explains why Jews don't believe in Jesus as the messiah. The purpose is not to disparage other religions, but rather to clarify the Jewish position.
#186: Why wasn't Jesus the Jewish Messiah? - Explanation of why Jews think that Jesus does not fulfill the criteria to be the messiah.
#187: Messiah Evangelical Lutheran Church, Waterloo, Ontario, Ontario (LCC) - Includes Worship times, faith statements, fellowship and study opportunities, location, and contacts.
#188: Messiah Mastiffs - Mastiff breeder in New Jersey. Show ring photos, pedigrees and planned breedings.
#189: Eighth Annual Messiah Festival - A community sing-along at the Alberta Bair Theater to benefit the Cancer Support Center.
#190: Church of the Messiah - Episcopal. Newsletter, calendar, and information about their ministries.
#191: Messiah United Methodist Church - Announcements, events, newsletter, and sermons.
#192: Church of the Messiah - Carrollton, Georgia. (Nondenominational)
#193: Messiah Lutheran Church - ELCA Church listing weekly events, child care center information, a monthly newsletter, and contact information.
#194: Messiah United Methodist Church - Contact information, weekly schedule, upcoming events, how to become a member.
#195: Jewish Biker - Searching the Scriptures to disprove the Gospel, David Katz receives Yeshua, Jesus the Messiah.
#196: Addicted to Jesus - A former heroin addict in Israel accepts Jesus as Messiah and finds deliverance and freedom.
#197: Messiah Lutheran Church - ELCA parish. Offers Sunday school, vacation Bible school.
#198: Messiah Lutheran Church - ELCA parish, with Sunday school and vacation Bible school.
#199: Messiah Lutheran Church - ELCA. Contact information, mission statement, worship times, map and directions, calendar, announcements, history, photos of new members. Too wide for most monitors.
#200: High Fives For Jesus - Funny photos of people with the messiah.
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#1: Society: Religion and Spirituality: Christianity: Denominations: Messianic Judaism (41 matches)
#2: Society: Religion and Spirituality: Christianity: Denominations: Lutheran: Congregations: Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod: Messiah (19)
#3: Arts: Movies: Titles: S: Savage Messiah (3)
#4: Arts: Music: Composition: Composers: H: Handel, George Frederic: Messiah, The (8)
#5: Games: Video Games: Shooter: M: Messiah (3)
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